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                        BDAI Secretariat, #20, 16th 'C' Main, 2nd 'A' Cross, 4th Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India
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  Cow Pat Pit (CPP)                                                                                   
Abstracted from Biodynamic Agriculture in India by Peter Proctor

Cow Pat Pit is known as CPP and is a specialized type of compost. It refers to cow manure mixed with crushed egg shell and basalt dust, then put into a 12 inch deep pit lined with bricks. The dung is fermented, together with the preps 502-507, for a period of 3 to 4 months. It is applied in the evenings during the cooler months.

Cow Pat Pits

From fungal and bacterial plate tests of the CPP, it appears there is a wide range of colonies or families of fungi and bacteria which have proliferated during the fermentation of the original cow dung material and also from what has been gained from the biodynamic preparations BD502-507.

It makes sense that the quality of the CPP will depend very much on the quality of the original cow dung and in particular what type of fodder the cows have been eating. Obviously if the milk that cows produce from eating good quality grass grown biodynamically, can be made into superb tasting yoghurt, quark or cheese, the dung from such grass will also be (not superb tasting) but of a superb aroma that will make very good CPP. This is something that the discerning farmer can gradually learn to recognize. Relating dung aroma to dung quality to grass quality and then soil quality.

In a country such as India where the cow is highly venerated and the fertility quality of the cow dung is recognized, it is hardly surprising that the Indian farmer has taken hold of the concept of CPP with great enthusiasm. Indian farmers have developed this biodynamic activity to a high degree since 1994 and now in 2006 there are large amounts of CPP being made and used throughout India and also supplied to farmers converting to BD.

CPP is a very effective way of spreading the influence of the compost preparations 502-507 over a large area of farmland, orchard or garden. 60 kgs of cow dung gives about 30-35 kgs of CPP after fermentation. When it is mature, it is mixed with water at the rate of 1kg in 40 litres of water per acre. This means one CPP pit should be enough to cover 40 acres.  It should be stirred for at least 10 minutes as this encourages good bacteria development. For larger areas the greater amount of liquid can be stirred in a 200 litre drum with the tripod stirring arrangement or with the Virbela flowform for 15 minutes before using.

It can be sprinkled or sprayed over the land. If it is sprayed onto trees or foliage, it should be first strained through a fine mesh.


Uses of CPP
The well made CPP has within it all the energies associated with the biodynamic preparations 502-507. It will also contain a wide range of beneficial fungi and bacteria and growth promoting hormones, which can be very helpful in many areas of agriculture and horticulture. It has a wide range of uses.

 Use as a ground spray at 1kgs per acre CPP to 40 litres of water.
Soak overnight prior to application, stir for 10 minutes, if necessary strain through a cotton cloth, and spray as required.

Stirring CPP

 Stir with preparation BD500 at 25gms BD500 to 100gm-1kg CPP.
Add during the last 15 minutes of stirring.

 Use as a soil inoculant over land being converted to BD/organic management.

 Use as a soil or foliar feed on all crops at all stages except close to harvest. It can be sprayed every 7 or 14 days. Best sprayed in the evenings.
Excellent for all field crops, i.e. wheat, lucern, paddy and potatoes.
Also mangos, papaya, all tropical fruits and citrus, apples, stone fruit, avocados, grapes, coffee and tea.

 Use on the soil around all fruit trees as a soil inoculant or soil conditioner. Use before any mulching is applied around the trees.

 When used as a foliar feed on all fruit trees, it will strengthen the plants against possible fungus or insect attack.
Apply every 14 days before and after flowering.

 Stir with any liquid manures at approx. 50gm CPP per gallon.

Liquid Manure

 Dissolve in water and use as a liquid manure in its own right.

 Take a handful of CPP, add water to make a slurry and apply as pruning paste to stop bleeding and help healing.

 Apply CPP slurry to the barks of trees to stimulate cambium growth.
This strengthens the bark and brings the good soil micro organisms up onto the tree.

 Use to dip roots of all young trees, shrubs, or grapes prior to planting.
This will encourage new root development.

 Soak seeds in CPP slurry overnight before sowing. If not overnight, soak for at least 30 minutes, dry off, and sow immediately.

 Soak seed potatoes for 1 hour before planting.
Dip potatoes and dry before planting.
This seems to help control late blight.

 Cuttings can be soaked in CPP slurry overnight to enhance root development.

 Use as one component of the sequence of BD sprays of BD500, BD501, and CPP in which BD502-507 have been incorporated.
This brings the effects of all the BD preparations onto the land over a short period. This seems to give strength and quality to the plants.

 It can be used to inoculate compost heaps where there is a shortage of biodynamic preparations. Use 1kg of CPP in 40 litres of water for each 5 metres of compost and pour into holes along the top of the heap.

How to Make CPP - Step by Step


BDAI Secretariat
#20, 16th 'C' Main, 2nd 'A' Cross, 4th Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India
bdaind(at) or Secretary at secretary(at)  Tel: +(91) 9448 067 088