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                        BDAI Secretariat, #20, 16th 'C' Main, 2nd 'A' Cross, 4th Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India
bdaind(at) or Secretary at secretary(at)         Tel: +(91) 9448 067 088



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  Preparation 500 - Cow Horn Manure                                                             

Cow Horn ManureKnown as cow horn manure, preparation 500 is basically fermented cow dung. It is the basis for soil fertility, and the renewal of degraded soils. It is usually the first preparation used during the change over to the organic/biodynamic system.

Preparation 500 is made by filling a cow's horn with cow dung, and burying it in the soil during the cooler months - November  through February.

The cow horns usually come from a slaughter house where the buyer has to compete with the artisans who use cow horns for various crafts. The price has risen since the horns are known to have a value in agriculture.

Cow's HornOnly cow horns are used, not bull horns. The cow horn differs from a bull horn in that it has a series of calving rings at the base and has a solid tip.

The dung should be from a lactating cow which will bring in the calcium processes to the preparation. The cow should be fed with good quality fodder two days before filling the horns to ensure the dung is of good quality.

Cow Horn pit The horns should be buried in a pit about 16-18 inches deep and covered with soil that has been enriched with good quality compost. Be careful not to allow weeds to grow on the pit as the weed roots can grow into the preparation and also avoid trees roots.

Cow Horn pit

Buried Horns

The horns should be buried open end down so that they will not become water logged if the pit is over watered.

During the cooler months life breathes into the soil and the soil has the tendency to be full of growth energies, which energies are absorbed into the dung through the receptive nature of the horn.

Burying Horns

  Burying Horns

Burying Horns

Smelling BD500The pit should be kept cool by mulching with paddy straw or similar and shaded with a low thatching of coconut fronds.

The preparation when ready after 4 months should have turned into dark humus and should be sweet smelling.

It should be stored in a cool place and in glazed pots or in glass jars surrounded by damp coir pith as an insulation.

Taking Out Horns

Taking out Horns

BD500 Taken Out

Stirring BD500It is sprayed up to four times a year. The best times are in October and November and then again in February and March. It is important to apply in the late afternoon.

It is used in small quanitities at the rate of 25 grams in 13 litres of water per acre.

It is stirred for one hour making a vortex or crater in one direction and then reversing the direction and making a vortex in the other direction.

The stirred preparation can then be sprinkled with a whisk brush over the land.

On larger areas a larger volume of liquid can be stirred in a 200 litre drum with a tripod supporting a stirring rod or with a Virbela flow form cascade mixing up to 500 litres and applied with a spray nozzle.

Preparation 500 is sprayed at the descending phase of the moon.

Stirring BD500


Virbela Flow

Tripod Stirring

  Spraying BD500

Spraying BD500

With regular application, preparation BD500 will give a soil all the characteristics needed to sustain a Living Soil.

 Strong humus formation
 Increase in all soil bacteria, such as rhizobacta activity (nodulation) on all legumes, eg dals, etc. and an increase of the phosphate solubilizing bacteria
 Increase in the mycorrhizal fungi and their hyphae
 Improved crumb structure and resultant improvement in soil tilth
 Earthworm activity is increased
 Absorption and retention of water is greater. International research has found that BD soils require 25% to 50% less irrigation than conventional soils.
 A deep rooting system is developed in all plants
 It will work equally well in any soil type, clays, volcanic, peat silt or weathered silica

Bio-Dynamic Preparations BD500, BD501, BD502-507 are made in several places in India and can be purchased from:

Kurinji Organic Farms in Kodaikanal, C. Jeyakaran

Supa Pvt. Ltd. in Nainital, Binita Shah

BD501 & Cow Horn Clay           BD502-507 & BD508            BD Preps Intro



BDAI Secretariat
#20, 16th 'C' Main, 2nd 'A' Cross, 4th Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India
bdaind(at) or Secretary at secretary(at)         Tel: +(91) 9448 067 088